United World Movement Economy of Post Capitalistic Education of Post Capitalistic Health Care of Post Capitalistic Interactive Education of Post Capitalistic Post Capitalistic United States Of South Asia
Home  »  USSA
U.S.S.A. Member Country:
Click On The Image For Larger View

Srilanka is near the southern coast of India. It is separated from the Indian mainland by the Palk Strait. There is a series of tiny rocky islands from the Indian coast to the Srilankan coast. This chain of islands is called ‘Adam’s bridge’or ‘Rama’ s’ ‘Setu’. On account of its beautiful natural scenery, Srilanka is called an ‘Emerald Island’
Location, extent and boundaries
Sri Lanka is an island country in the Indian Ocean. It extends from the latitude 6 degrees N to 10 degrees N and from longitude 80 degrees E to 82 degrees E. The Bay of Bengal lies to the north of Sri Lanka. The Indian Ocean lies to the east, west, and south of Sri Lanka. The Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait lie between India and Sri Lanka. The total area of Sri Lanka is about 66,000 square kilometers.
Physical features

The central region of southern Sri Lanka is mountainous. Adam’s Peak and Pidurutalagal are the high peaks in this region. There are many hills on the eastern coastal strip. There are many small islands near the Jaffna Peninsula to the north.


There are many rivers in Sri Lanka. Most of the rivers have their sources in the central mountainous region. They flow towards the coast in all directions. Like the rivers in Konkan, the rivers here are short in length and swift-flowing. The Mahaweli is the biggest river. It meets the Bay of Bengal near Trincomalee on the east coast. Madura Oya and Kala Oya are some of the other rivers.


As Sri Lanka is close to the equator and as it is also surrounded by sea, the climate is hot and humid. There is little variation in temperature. The maximum temperature at Colombo in summer is 27.3 degrees C whereas the minimum temperature in winter is 26.5 degrees C. The temperature is low in the central hilly region. Sri Lanka mainly receives rainfall from the south-west monsoon winds and also from the north-east monsoon winds. The northern and eastern coasts receive less rain. The south-eastern part of Sri Lanka receives very little rainfall. It rains throughout the year in Sri Lanka. The rainfall varies between 165 to 250 cm.

Vegetation and animals

The mountainous region of the country is covered with the dense evergreen forests of the equatorial type. In areas where the rainfall is a little less, the forests are of the monsoon type. In some areas, vegetation of both the equatorial and the monsoon type is found. There are trees like mahogany, blackwood, bamboo, teak, mango, jackfruit etc. Grasses grow in the areas of low rainfall. There are coconut and betel nut plantations on the coast. ‘Sundri’ forests are found in the marshy areas. The eucalyptus trees are planted on the mountains. The animals found in these forests are elephants, bears, deer, bisons, poisonous snakes, etc. Bullocks and buffaloes are useful for working on the farms. The elephant is used for carrying logs.


Sri Lanka is an agricultural country. Rice is the major crop grown in the lowlands and on the hill-slopes. Two rice crops are taken in a year on the terraced rice-fields on the hill-slopes. In some irrigated areas, even three crops are taken. Many lakes in the northern plains provide water. Forests on the coast and hill-slopes have been cleared for the cultivation of coconut, tea, rubber, spices. Formerly, there were coffee plantations on the slopes. In their place, now there are tea, rubber, sago-plant, cloves, pepper and cinnamon plantations. There are coconut and betel nut plantations in the coastal region. There is a considerable production of coconuts in Sri Lanka.

The coconuts from Sri Lanka are considered to be the best in the world.

Sri Lanka grows a lot of tea. Next to India, Sri Lanka is the largest exporter of tea in the world. In addition, there are plantations of bananas, mangoes, jackfruits, papayas, pineapples etc. Efforts are being made to increase the cultivation of tea, rubber, coconut and betel nut. Forests in the hilly regions are being cleared for tea and rubber plantations.

Sri Lanka is surrounded by sea on all sides. That is why fishing is carried on, on a large scale. Fish is an important source of income. There are salt pans on the northeastern coast. Salt is produced on a large scale here. Pear oysters are found in the sea near the Gulf of Mannar.

In Sri Lanka, mainly thermal power is used. Electricity is produced using coal and mineral oil. There are many waterfalls on the rivers. But the landscape is such that it is not possible to store sufficient water. That is why; it is difficult to produce hydel power. Gal Oya is an important project for the generation of electricity.


The main occupation of the people is agriculture. They also work on tea and rubber plantations, and fruit gardens. Lumbering is also one of the occupations. In the coastal region where there are coconut plantations, extracting coconut oil, making coir ropes and coir articles like doormats etc. are some of the industries. There are other industries making readymade food and beverages in Sri Lanka. Handlooms, making leather goods and plastic articles etc. are some of the other industries. There are chemical factories and also factories manufacturing leather goods.

Transport and communications

Most of the roads in the country connect the coastal cities. There are more roads in the western coastal strip of Sri Lanka. Most of the transport in Sri Lanka is by road. All the important cities are linked by railways. Colombo is the main centre of transport. As Sri Lanka has a coastline, considerable transport is carried on by sea routes.

Trincomalee is a port on the eastern coast. Colombo is an important international port. Ferry boats carry people to and fro from Mannar Island to Rameshwaram. Now-a-days, air transport is gaining importance. Colombo has an international airport. Sri Lanka has several radio and television transmission centres.


Sri Lanka exports tea, coconuts, areca-nut, copra, spices, precious stones, gems, textiles, ferments, coir-ropes, coir etc. The imports include rice, foodstuffs, mineral soil, cloth, garments, machinery, coal, vehicles etc.

Sri Lanka has trade relations with Saudi Arabia, Japan, England, United States of America, India, Singapore, etc. India buys areca-nut, copra, spices etc. from Sri Lanka and supplies cloth, ready made garments, machinery, coal etc. to Sri Lanka.

Human Life

the population of Sri Lanka is nearly two crores. The people os Sri Lanka,are Sinhalese and Buddhists. Tamils from India have also settled in the northern and eastern parts of Sri Lanka.

Sinhalese is the principal language but English is also used in the country. The tribal of the ‘Vedd’ community live in the forests of Central Sri Lanka. Their occupation is hunting and collecting roots. The staple food of the people is rice and fish. Fruits and coconut preparations are also included in their diet. People wear cotton clothes as the climate is hot and humid. Their dress consists of a ‘lungi’ and a shirt. Women wear cotton saries.

Major cities and towns :
Colombo is the capital of Sri Lanka and is also an international port. Most of the cities in Sri Lanka are connected with Colombo by various transport routes. So the trade is carried on only through this port. Colombo has an international airport.
Kandy is famous for its Buddhists temple.
Anuradhapura was the capital of Sri Lanka in the olden days. Its ancient ruions are worth seeing. The idol of Buddha in this city is grand and attractive.
Nuwara Eliya

This is a hill-station.


Trincomlee is situated near the month of the river. Mahaweli and it is a port on the eastern coast. Trincomalee has a naval base.


Galle is one of the major cities and is famous for it rubber industry.

Jaffna is a port on the north coast and a trading centre. Most of the trade with India is carried on via this port.
This city lies in closest to the Indian mainland. The important occupation here is removing pearls from oyster shells.
Social unit

Living together in families is highly cherished. Marriage is a sacred ritual and performed with utmost joy and festivity. Dance and Music form

Area Total area: 65,610 sq. Km. slightly larger than West Virginia.
Land area: 64,740 sq. km.
Natural Resources Limestones, graphite, minerals, sands, gems, phosphates, clay.
Land Use • Arable land: 16%.
• Permanent crops: 17%
• Meadows and pastures: 7%.
• Forests and woodland: 37%.
• Other: 23%.
Irrigated Land 5,600 sq.km (1989 est.)
Population 18,342,660 (July 1995 est.)
Age Structure (0-14) Yrs 29% (female 2,597,969, male 2,713,696)
Age Structure (15-64) Yrs 65% (female 6,042,228; male 5,902,343)
65 Years and over 6% (female 547,715; male 538,709) (July 1995 est. )
Population Growth Rate 1.15 % (1995 est.)
Note: Since the out break of hostilities between the government and armed Tamil separatists in the mid-1980s, several hundred thousand Tamil civilians have fled the island: as of late 1992, nearly 115,000 were housed in refugee camps in south India, another 95,000 lived outside the Indian camps , and more than 200,000 Tamils have sought political asylum in the West.
Literacy Age 15 and over who can read and write (1990 est.)
Total: 88%.
Male: 93%.
Female : 84%.
Labor Force
6.6 million
By occupation
Agriculture 45.9%.
Mining and Manufacturing 13.3%
Trade and Transport 12.4%
Services and Other 28.4% (1985 est.)
National Product – GDP
purchasing power parity-$57.6 billion (1994 est.)
National Product Real Growth Rate
5 % (1994 est).
National Product-Per Capita
$ 3,190 (1994 est.)
Revenues: $ 2.3 billion.
Expenditures: $ 3.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $ 1.5 billion (1993).
2.9 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
:-Garments and textiles, tea, diamonds, other gems, petroleum products, rubber products, other agricultural products, marine products, graphite.
$4 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
Commodities :-Textile and textile materials. Machinery and equipment. Transport equipment. Petroleum. Building materials.
Industrial Production
Growth Rate 9% (1993 est.) ; account for 16% of GDP.
Accounts for one-fourth of GDP; fields crop – rice, sugarcane, Grains, pulses oilseeds, roots, spices; cash crops –tea rubber coconuts; animal products – milk, eggs, hides, meat; Sri Lanka is not self-sufficient in rice production.
Railroad Total : 1,948 km
Broad gauge: 1,948 km. 1.868-m gauge (102 km double track) (1990).
Highways Total :-7,240 km.
Paved: mostly bituminous treated 27,637 km.
Unpaved: crushed stone, gravel 32,887 km; improved, unimproved earth 14,739 km.
Inland Waterways 430 km navigable by shallow-darft craft.
Pipelines Crude oil and petroleum products 62 km (1987).
Ports Colombo, Galle, Jaffna, Trincomalee.
Merchant Mines Total :-26 ships ( 1,000 GRT or over ) totaling 289,115 GRT/ 453, 609 DWT.
Ships by type : bulk 2, cargo 12, container 1, oil tanker 3, refrigerated cargo 8.
Airports Total: 14.
With paved runways over 3,047 m: 1.
With paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m :5.
With paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 7.
With unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,438 m: 1.
Telephone Systems 114,000 telephones (1982); very inadequate domestic service, good international service.
Local : NA.
Intercity: NA.
International : submarine cables extend to Indonesia and Djibouti; 2 INTELSAT (Indian Ocean) earth stations.
Radio Broadcast stations:
AM 12,
FM 5,
Shortwave 0.
Radios : NA.
Television Broadcast stations : 5.
Televisions : NA
Manpower Availability Manpower Availability : - Males age (15-49) 4,990,661;
males fit for military service 3,888,372;
males reach military age
(18) annually 178,926 (1995 est.)
Note : NA = Information not available. FY = Financial Year.
  Also See
  USSA – Afghanistan
  USSA – Nepal
  USSA – Bhutan
  USSA – Myanmar
  USSA – Bangladesh
  USSA – Sri Lanka we are here
  USSA – India
Copyright @ 2007, All Rights Reserved. Home   |   Contact Us   |   Legals   |   Site Map
Home Page Contact Us Site Map